Thursday, October 4, 2018

GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS

1.Height Altitude hotel :-

The hotel everest view above Namche , Nepal - the village closest to Everest base camp - is at a record altitude of 3,962 m. (13000-ft) above sea level

Hight Hotel :-

The grand Hyatt Shanghai in Pudong , Shanghai China , is the highest hotel in the world. It occupies the top 35 floor of the 88- storey 420-m.(1378-ft) tall Jim Mao tower , the tallest building in China and the third tallest inthe world.

Fact of fun

1. A crocodile cannot stick it's tongue out



2. Chimpanzees use tools more than any other animal except man


 3. Failure will never overtake me if my determination to succeed is strong enough.


4.you are never too old to set another goal or to dream a new dream .


5. Coughing can cause air to move through your windpipe faster than the speed of sound - over a thousand feet per second


6. Cows can sleep standing up .

Thursday, September 27, 2018

World Tourism Day is First Celebration



Since 1980, the United Nations World Tourism Organization has celebrated World Tourism Day as international observances on September 27. This date was chosen as on that day in 1970, the Statutes of the UNWTO were adopted. The adoption of these Statutes is considered a milestone in global tourism. The purpose of this day is to raise awareness  on the role of tourism within the international community and to demonstrate how it affects social, cultural, political and economic values worldwide. The theme of the day was "sustainable tourism", in 2017. In 2018 the theme is "Tourism and the Digital Transformation".

At its Twelfth Session in Istanbul, Turkey, in October 1997, the UNWTO General Assembly decided to designate a host country each year to act as the Organization's partner in the celebration of World Tourism Day. At its Fifteenth Session in Beijing, China, in October 2003, the Assembly decided the following geographic order to be followed for World Tourism Day celebrations: 2006 in Europe; 2007 in South Asia; 2008 in the Americas; 2009 in Africa and 2011 in the Middle East.

The late Ignatius Amaduwa Atigbi, a Nigerian national, was the one who proposed the idea of marking September 27 of every year as World Tourism Day. He was finally recognized for his contribution in 2009. The colour of World Tourism Day is Blue.


Monday, September 24, 2018

Fact about MOM




Artist's rendering of the Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft, with Mars in the background.
The primary objective of the mission is to develop the technologies required for designing, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission. The secondary objective is to explore Mars' surface features, morphology, mineralogy and Martian atmosphere using indigenous scientific instruments.


The main objectives are to develop the technologies required for designing, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission comprising the following major tasks:42

Orbit manoeuvres to transfer the spacecraft from Earth-centred orbit to heliocentric trajectory and finally, capture into Martian orbit
Development of force models and algorithms for orbit and attitude computations and analysis
Navigation in all phases
Maintain the spacecraft in all phases of the mission
Meeting power, communications, thermal and payload operation requirements
Incorporate autonomous features to handle contingency situations
Scientific objectives
The scientific objectives deal with the following major aspects::43

Exploration of Mars surface features by studying the morphology, topography and mineralogy
Study the constituents of Martian atmosphere including methane and CO2 using remote sensing techniques
Study the dynamics of the upper atmosphere of Mars, effects of solar wind  and radiation and the escape of volatiles to outer space
The mission would also provide multiple opportunities to observe the Martian moon Phobos and also offer an opportunity to identify and re-estimate the orbits of asteroids seen during the Martian Transfer Trajectory.

Fact about mars orbiter mission (MOM)





The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan ("Mars-craft", from Sanskrit: मंगल mangala, "Mars" and यान yāna, "craft, vehicle"), is a space probe orbiting Mars  since 24 September 2014. It was launched on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is India's first interplanetary mission and ISRO has also become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and the European Space Agency.It is the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the first nation in the world to do so in its first attempt.
The Mars Orbiter Mission probe lifted-off from the First Launch Pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre (Sriharikota Range SHAR), Andhra Pradesh, using a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) rocket C25 at 09:08 UTC on 5 November 2013 The launch window was approximately 20 days long and started on 28 October 2013.The MOM probe spent about a month in Earth orbit, where it made a series of seven apogee-raising orbital manoeuvres  before trans-Mars injection on 30 November 2013 (UTC). After a 298-day transit to Mars, it was successfully inserted into Mars orbit on 24 September 2014.

The mission is a "technology demonstrator" project to develop the technologies for designing, planning, management, and operations of an interplanetary mission.It carries five instruments that will help advance knowledge about Mars to achieve its secondary, scientific objective. The spacecraft is currently being monitored from the Spacecraft Control Centre at ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network  (ISTRAC) in Bangalore with support from Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) antennae at Byalalu, Karnataka.




Mythological anecdotes of Ganesha and Consorts of Ganesha



Shiva and Parvati giving a bath to Ganesha. Kangra miniature, 18th century. Allahabad Museum, New Delhi.
Though Ganesha is popularly held to be the son of Shiva and Parvati, the Puranic myths give different versions about his birth.In some he was created by Parvati, in another he was created by Shiva and  Parvati, in another he appeared mysteriously and was discovered by Shiva and Parvati or he was born from the elephant headed goddess Malini after she drank Parvati's bath water that had been thrown in the river.

The family includes his brother, the god of war, Kartikeya, who is also called Skanda and Murugan.lMurugan. differences dictate the order of their births. In northern India, Skanda is generally said to be the elder, while in the south, Ganesha is considered the firstborn. In northern India, Skanda was an important martial deity from about 500 BCE to about 600 CE, after which worship of him declined significantly. As Skanda fell, Ganesha rose. Several stories tell of sibling rivalry between the brothers and may reflect sectarian tensions.

Ganesha's marital status, the subject of considerable scholarly review, varies widely in mythological stories.One pattern of myths identifies Ganesha as an unmarried brahmachari.This view is common in southern India and parts of northern India. Another pattern associates him with the concepts of Buddhi (intellect), Siddhi (spiritual power), and Riddhi (prosperity); these qualities are sometimes personified as goddesses, said to be Ganesha's wives.He also may be shown with a single consort or a nameless servant (Sanskrit: daşi). Another pattern connects Ganesha with the goddess of culture and the arts, Sarasvati or Śarda  (particularly in Maharashtra).He is also associated with the goddess of luck and prosperity, Lakshmi. Another pattern, mainly prevalent in the Bengal region, links Ganesha with the banana tree, Kala Bo.

The Shiva Purana says that Ganesha had begotten two sons: Kşema (prosperity) and Lābha (profit). In northern Indian variants of this story, the sons are often said to be Śubha  (auspiciouness) and Lābha.The 1975 Hindi film Jai Santoshi Maa shows Ganesha married to Riddhi and Siddhi and having a daughter named Santoshi Ma, the goddess of satisfaction. This story has no Puranic basis, but Anita Raina Thapan and Lawrence Cohen cite Santoshi Ma's cult as evidence of Ganesha's continuing evolution as a popular deity.

Ganpati Bappa Moriya



Ganesha has been ascribed many other titles and epithets, including Ganapati (Ganpati) and Vighneshvara. The Hindu title of respect Shri  (Sanskrit: श्री; IAST: śrī; also spelled Sri or Shree) is often added before his name.

The name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana (gaṇa), meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha (īśa), meaning lord or master.The word gaṇa when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the gaṇas, a troop of semi-divine beings that form part of the retinue of Shiva, Ganesha's father.The term more generally means a category, class, community, association, or corporation.Some commentators interpret the name "Lord of the Gaṇas" to mean "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord of created categories", such as the elements.Ganapati (गणपति; gaṇapati), a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of gaṇa, meaning "group", and pati, meaning "ruler" or "lord". Though the earliest mention of the word Ganapati is found in hymn 2.23.1 of the 2nd-millennium BCE Rigveda, it is however uncertain that the Vedic term referred specifically to Ganesha.The Amarakosha, an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha: Vinayaka, Vighnarāja (equivalent to Vighnesha), Dvaimātura (one who has two mothers), Gaṇādhipa (equivalent to Ganapati and Ganesha), Ekadanta (one who has one tusk), Heramba, Lambodara (one who has a pot belly, or, literally, one who has a hanging belly), and Gajanana (gajānana); having the face of an elephant.

Vinayaka (विनायक; vināyaka) is a common name for Ganesha that appears in the Purāṇas and in Buddhist Tantras. This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak (Marathi: अष्टविनायक, aṣṭavināyaka).The names Vighnesha (विघ्नेश; vighneśa) and Vighneshvara  (विघ्नेश्वर; vighneśvara) (Lord of Obstacles) refers to his primary function in Hinduism as the master and remover of obstacles (vighna).

Fact about Ganpati Bappa

Ganesha (Sanskrit: गणेश, Gaṇeśa;  listen (help·info)), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon. His image is found throughout India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bali (Indonesia), Bangladesh and Nepal.Hindu denominations worship him regardless of affiliations.Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains and Buddhists.





Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify.Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom. As the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rites and ceremonies. Ganesha is also invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions.Several texts relate mythological anecdotes  associated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography.

Ganesha likely emerged as a deity as early as the 2nd century AD, but most certainly by the 4th and 5th centuries AD, during the Gupta period, although he inherited traits from Vedic  and pre-Vedic precursors. Hindu mythology identifies him as the restored son of Parvati  and Shiva of the Shaivism tradition, but he is a pan-Hindu god found in its various traditions.In the Ganapatya tradition of Hinduism, Ganesha is the supreme deity. The principal texts on Ganesha include the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa. Brahma Purana and Brahmanda Purana are other two Puranic genre encyclopedic texts that deal with Ganesha.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Do you know this "Bachpan Bachao Andolan"



Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA; Save Childhood Movement) is an India-based movement campaigning for the rights of children. It was started in 1980 by Nobel Laureate Mr. Kailash Satyarthi. Its focus has centred on ending bonded labour, child labour  and human trafficking, as well as demanding the right to education for all children. It has so far freed more than 83,000 children from servitude, including bonded labourers, and helped in their successful re-integration, rehabilitation and education.

The stated vision of Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA) is "to create a child friendly society where all children are free from exploitation and receive free and quality education. It aims to identify, liberate, rehabilitate and educate children in servitude through direct intervention, child and community participation, coalition building, consumer action, promoting ethical trade practices and mass mobilisation."

BBA was formed in 1980 by Mr. Kailash Satyarthi, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate for 2014, who was appalled by the plight of child slavery across South Asia. Child labour has been socially accepted and widely practised in the region for generations, being seen as a necessary outcome of poverty. BBA became the first organization in India to highlight the issue and spawned the wider South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude (SACCS).

Tuesday, September 4, 2018

Tourism of bihar

The Mahabodhi Temple, among the four holy sites related to the life of the Lord Buddha and UNESCO World Heritage Site
The culture and heritage of Bihar can be observed from the large number of ancient monuments spread throughout the state. Bihar is visited by many tourists from around the world, with about 24,000,000 (24 million) tourists visiting the state each year.

In earlier days, tourism in the region was purely based on educational tourism, as Bihar was home of some prominent ancient universities like Nalanda & Vikramashila.



Monuments of Darbhanga


   Remains of the ancient city of Vaishali


                   Trolley ride in Rajgir


 The tomb of Sher Shah Suri is in the       Sasaram town of Bihar


     Barabar Caves – Asokan Inscription


                 Vikramshila Monastery


                    Buddha Smriti Park

Interesting facts about History of bihar


Copy of the seal excavated from Kundpur, Vaishali. The Brahmi letters on the seal means: Kundpur was in Vaishali. Prince Vardhaman (Mahavira) used this seal after the Judgement

Magadha, Anga and Vrijji (or Vajji) Confederacy of Mithila in circa  600 BCE
Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345 BC).Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha, Mithila and Anga—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.

Mithila first gained prominence after being settled by Indo-Aryan peoples who established the Videha Kingdom.mmDuring the late Vedic period (c. 1100-500 BCE), Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla. The kings of the Videha Kingdom were called Janakas.Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic, Ramayana, written by Valmiki. The Videha Kingdom later became incorporated into the Vajji  confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, which is also in Mithila.Vajji had a republican form of government where the king was elected from the number of rajas. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the world's first republic.

The region of modern-day southwestern Bihar called Magadha remained the centre of power, learning, and culture in India for 1000 years. The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha  (modern Rajgir). The two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered the Vajji. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty. Later the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab.

The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire, India's first empire. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism  arose in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who was born in Magadha. It had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Mauryan  emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Pataliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world.

The Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy.Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.


Medieval

Kalidasa's Sanskrit play Abhijñānaśākuntalam
Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed. It was claimed that thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred during the 12th century.D. N. Jha suggests, instead, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy.In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital.

From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties. The first of these where the Karnatas, followed by the Oinwar dynasty, Raghuvanshi and finally Raj Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shifted to Darbhanga.

The tenth and the last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna.

Interesting facts about bihar



Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the Freight equalisation policy, its apathy towards Bihar,lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company. The state government has, however, made significant strides in developing the state.Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure,better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction in crime and corruption.

The name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit  and Pali word, Vihāra (Devanagari: विहार), meaning "abode". The region roughly encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabakat-i-Nasiri that in 1198, Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town now known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya.

Interesting facts about bihar

Bihar (/bɪˈhɑːr/; Hindustani pronunciation: [bɪˈɦaːr]) is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India. It is the 13th-largest state of India, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state of India by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges which flows from west to east. Bihar is an amalgamation of three distinct regions: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.





Clockwise from top: Great Buddha Statue at Bodh Gaya, Ruins of ancient Nalanda University, Madhubani painting  from Mithila region, Brahma Kund hot springs in Rajgir
On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand.Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh.Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state.

In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture. AwFrom Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta  dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule.Another region of Bihar is Mithila which was an early centre of Brahmanical learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom.There is an ongoing movement in the Maithili speaking region of Bihar for a separate Indian state of Mithila. What would be the capital of the state has yet to be decided, but Darbhanga is the most likely candidate. Other potential capitals include Muzaffarpur, Purnia, Madhubani and Begusarai.

Sunday, August 26, 2018

Cultural references


The islands are prominently featured in Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes mystery, The Sign of the Four, as well as in M. M. Kaye's Death in the Andamans. The magistrate in Lady Gregory's play Spreading the News had formerly served in the islands. Marianne Wiggins' novel, John Dollar (1989), is set on one of the islands; the characters begin an expedition from Burma to celebrate King George's birthday and after an earthquake and tsunami it becomes a grim survival story. A principal character in the book Six Suspects by Vikas Swarup is from the Andaman Islands. Kaalapani (Malayalam) and Sirai Chaalai  (Tamil), a 1996 Indian film by Priyadarshan, depicts the Indian freedom struggle and the lives of prisoners in the Cellular Jail in Port Blair. Island's End is a 2011 novel by Padma Venkatraman about the training of an indigenous shaman.

Demographics


A young Onge mother with her child
As of 2011, the population of the Andaman was 343,125, having grown from 50,000 in 1960. The bulk of the population originates from immigrants who came to the island since the colonial times, mainly of Bengali, Hindustani and Tamil backgrounds.

Indigenous Andamanese
Main article: Andamanese people
Of the people who live in the Andaman Islands, a small minority of about 1,000 are the so-called Andamanese, the aboriginal inhabitants (adivasi) of the islands. By the 1850s when they first came into sustained contact by outside groups, there were estimated 7,000 Andamanese, divided into the following major groups:

Great Andamanese
Jarawa
Jangil (or Rutland Jarawa)
Onge
Sentinelese
As the numbers of settlers from the mainland increased (at first mostly prisoners and involuntary indentured labourers, later purposely recruited farmers), these indigenous people lost territory and numbers in the face of punitive expeditions by British troops, land encroachment and various epidemic diseases. Presently, there remain only approximately 400–450 indigenous Andamanese. The Jangil were soon extinct. The Great Andamanese were originally 10 distinct tribes with 5,000 people in total; most of the tribes are extinct, and the survivors, now just 52, speak mostly Hindi.The Onge are reduced to less than 100 people. Only the Jarawa and Sentinelese still maintain a steadfast independence and refuse most attempts at contact; their numbers are uncertain but estimated to be in the low hundreds.

Fact about Andman nikobar

The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east. Most are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India, while a small number in the north of the archipelago, including the Coco Islands, belong to Myanmar.

The Andaman Islands are home to the Andamanese, a group of indigenous peoples including the Sentinelese, who have had little contact with any other people.

Are we ready for ALIEN contact? Former MoD man warns 'we're NOT and it's a mistake'

AFTER Germany revealed it has no contingency plans ready in the event of first contact with aliens, a former Ministry of Defence (MoD) insider told Express.co.uk nations are making a “big mistake” by not preparing.
Nick Pope, who worked for the British Government between 1985 and 2006, has claimed neither the UK nor any other country is truly prepared for whatever may be lurking in the void of space.

Between 1991 and 1994 Mr Pope examined UFO sightings for the MoD in a bid to determine if they had any defence-related significance.

The MoD pulled the plug on the UFO project in 2009 and Mr Pope has since extensively toured the world, giving lectures at seminars and alien-related conferences.

Which is why he told Express.co.uk he was not surprised to hear this month the German government has no plan ready for the possibility of first contact with extraterrestrials.

Earlier in August, the German Ministry of Economics said in a statement it considered first contact “extremely unlikely according to current scientific knowledge”.

Mr Pope has now said people are quick to dismiss calls for the creation of contingency plans.

He told Express.co.uk: “I was interested but not surprised to see that Germany has no official plan for what to do in the event of encountering extraterrestrials.

“The UK doesn't have a plan either – nobody does – and I think this is a big mistake.


Alien news: Nick Pope believes nations are not prepared for the eventuality of first contact (Image: NICK POPE/GETTY)
“People respond to the suggestion of a plan in two ways. Sceptics say it's a waste of time, while conspiracy theorists say there is a plan but the government isn't telling us.”

Mr Pope is certain the UK does not have a contingency plan drafted because odds are he would have been the very person to write it up.

The UFO expert said scepticism aside, it would be prudent for the Government to prepare for what could be the single “most high-impact scenario you could imagine” – meeting aliens.

According to Mr Pope, the Cabinet Office with input from the Government’s Chief Scientific Adviser and the MoD should coordinate this effort.

He outlined three main scenarios that would fall under the umbrella of alien first contact.

This would include detecting radio signals from distant alien civilisations, discovering alien microbial life within the boundaries of the solar system or the arrival of alien ships and probes over Earth.

Mr Pope said: “Some of the issues that need to be addressed in a plan include the potential biological hazard posed by extraterrestriallife,and the question of whether we should reply to any message we receive from aliens – and if so, who should reply and what should they say.

“But there are more subtle issues. What if we pick up a message from another civilisation but can't decipher it? Should it be published?

“Given that it might contain advanced scientific and technological information that someone could weaponise, probably not.


Aliens news: The former MoD man said countries need to draft appropriate legislation (Image: GETTY)

Alien news: Aliens could exist as intelligent species or microbial life (Image: GETTY)
“There are bits and pieces of existing guidance that can help us with all this.”

Mr Pope said US space agency NASA has some guidance concerning “planetary protection” from potential extraterrestrial contaminants.

But the UFO expert stressed little is being done in terms of binding legislation to cover these issues in a “single document”, on a national and international scale.

Mr Pope said he is ready to draft such a contingency plant for further consultation with appropriate experts and stakeholders.

Saturday, August 25, 2018

Cultural of kerla

                          A Kathakali artist

 During Onam, Kerala's biggest celebration, Keralites create pookkalam (floral carpet) designs in front of their houses.

                             Onam Sadya

               A mohiniattam performance
 Theyyam, The ritual art of North Malabar

 Thunchaththu Ramanujan Ezhuthachan, 17-century poet
                   Thrissur Pooram festival

The culture of Kerala is composite and cosmopolitan in nature and it is an integral part of Indian culture.It is synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, defined by its antiquity and the organic continuity sustained by the Malayali people. It has been elaborated through centuries of contact with neighbouring and overseas cultures. However, the geographical insularity of Kerala from the rest of the country has resulted in the development of a distinctive lifestyle, art, architecture, language, literature and social institutions.Over 10,000 festivals are celebrated in the state every year.The Malayalam calendar, a solar calendar started from 825 CE in Kerala, finds common usage in planning agricultural and religious activities.

Festivals :
Many of the temples in Kerala hold festivals on specific days of the year. A common characteristic of these festivals is the hoisting of a holy flag which is brought down on the final day of the festival after immersing the deity. Some festivals include Poorams, the best known of these being the Thrissur Pooram. "Elephants, firework displays and huge crowds" are the major attractions of Thrissur Pooram.Other known festivals are Makaravilakku, Chinakkathoor Pooram Nenmara Vallangi Velaand Utsavam.[citation needed] Temples that can afford it will usually involve at least one richly caparisoned elephant as part of the festivities



Pre-History of kerla

Pre-history of Kerala

A dolmen erected by Neolithic people in Marayur
A substantial portion of Kerala may have been under the sea in ancient times. Marine fossils have been found in an area near Changanacherry, thus supporting the hypothesis.Pre-historical archaeological findings include dolmens of the Neolithic era in the Marayur area of the Idukki district. They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen).Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves, in Wayanad date back to the Neolithic era around 6000 BCE.Archaeological studies have identified Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala. The studies point to the development of ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic Age, through the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic Ages. Foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation; historians suggest a possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization  during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age.

Ancient period

Kerala has been a major spice exporter since 3000 BCE, according to Sumerian records and it is still referred to as the "Garden of Spices" or as the "Spice Garden of India".Kerala's spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. Phoenicians  established trade with Kerala during this period. The Land of Keralaputra was one of the four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya, and Satiyaputra. Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala.These territories once shared a common language and culture, within an area known as Tamilakam.Along with the Ay kingdom in the south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north, the Cheras formed the ruling kingdoms of Kerala in the early years of the Common Era (CE). It is noted in Sangam literature that the Chera king Uthiyan Cheralathan ruled most of modern Kerala from his capital in Kuttanad, and controlled the port of Muziris, but its southern tip was in the kingdom of Pandyas,which had a trading port sometimes identified in ancient Western sources as Nelcynda (or Neacyndi) in Quilon.The lesser known Ays  and Mushikas kingdoms lay to the south and north of the Chera regions respectively.


Silk Road map. The spice trade was mainly along the water routes (blue).
In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper. The Cheras had trading links with China, West Asia, Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire.In foreign-trade circles the region was known as Male or Malabar.Muziris, Berkarai, and Nelcynda were among the principal ports at that time. The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces;contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper. One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala was Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana; the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus.

Merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala.The Israeli (Jewish) connection with Kerala started in 573 BCE.Arabs also had trade links with Kerala, starting before the 4th century BCE, as Herodotus (484–413 BCE) noted that goods brought by Arabs from Kerala were sold to the Israelis [Hebrew (Jews)] at Eden. Israelis intermarried with local (Cheras Drav)

History of kerla

Mythology


Parasurama, surrounded by settlers, commanding Varuna (the Hindu God of water) to part the seas and reveal Kerala
According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu (hence, Kerala is also called Parasurama Kshetram ("The Land of Parasurama"). Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari. The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation; so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, who spat holy poison and converted the soil into fertile lush green land. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land. The legend was later expanded, and found literary expression in the 17th or 18th century with Keralolpathi, which traces the origin of aspects of early Kerala society, such as land tenure and administration, to the story of Parasurama.In medieval times Kuttuvan  may have emulated the Parasurama tradition by throwing his spear into the sea to symbolise his lordship over it.

Another much earlier Puranic character associated with Kerala is Mahabali, an Asura  and a prototypical just king, who ruled the earth from Kerala. He won the war against the Devas, driving them into exile. The Devas pleaded before Lord Vishnu, who took his fifth incarnation as Vamana and pushed Mahabali down to Patala (the netherworld) to placate the Devas. There is a belief that, once a year during the Onam festival, Mahabali returns to Kerala.The Matsya Purana, among the oldest of the 18 Puranas,uses the Malaya Mountains of Kerala (and Tamil Nadu) as the setting for the story of Matsya, the first incarnation of Vishnu, and Manu, the first man and the king of the region.

Etymology of Kerala

Etymology


The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera  ("coconut tree" in Malayalam) and alam  ("land"); thus "land of coconuts",which is a nickname for the state, used by locals, due to abundance of coconut trees.The word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka (274–237 BCE), one of his edicts pertaining to welfare. The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra (Sanskrit for "son of Kerala"); or "son of Chera[s]". This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree".At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake".

The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics. The Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam  temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam ("declivity of a hill or a mountain slope")or chera alam ("Land of the Cheras"). The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra.

Interesting fact about kerla

Kerala (/ˈkɛrələ/) is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

Kerala

The Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era (CE or AD). The region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin. They united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which later became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and the taluk of Kasaragod (now Kasaragod District) in South Kanara (Tulunad) which was a part of Madras State.

The economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore  (US$110 billion) in gross domestic product  and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000  (US$2,400).Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%; the highest Human Development Index (HDI), 0.712 in 2015; the highest literacy rate, 93.91% in the 2011 census; the highest life expectancy, 77 years; and the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men. The state has witnessed significant emigration, especially to Arab states of the Persian Gulf  during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from a large Malayali  expatriate community. Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian, Arab, and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad.

The production of pepper and natural rubber  contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important. The state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres (370 mi), and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions.


Thursday, August 23, 2018

Culture and societyof Pakistan

Culture and society

Main articles: British heritage of Pakistan, Culture of Pakistan, and Public holidays in Pakistan

Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
Civil society in Pakistan is largely hierarchical, emphasising local cultural etiquette and traditional Islamic values that govern personal and political life. The basic family unit is the extended family, although for socio-economic reasons there has been a growing trend towards nuclear families. The traditional dress for both men and women is the Shalwar Kameez; trousers, jeans, and shirts are also popular among men.[68] In recent decades, the middle class has increased to around 35 million and the upper and upper-middle classes to around 17 million, and power is shifting from rural landowners to the urbanised elites. Pakistani festivals, including Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Ramazan, Christmas, Easter, Holi, and Diwali, are mostly religious in origin.Increasing globalisation has resulted in Pakistan ranking 56th on the A.T. Kearney/FP Globalization Index.

Clothing, arts, and fashion
Main articles: Pakistani clothing, Shalwar kameez, Sherwani, Jinnah cap, and Peshawari chappal
The Shalwar Kameez is the national dress of Pakistan and is worn by both men and women in all four provinces: Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa as well as in FATA and Azad Kashmir. Each province has its own style of Shalwar Kameez. Pakistanis wear clothes in a range of exquisite colours and designs and in type of fabric (silk, chiffon, cotton, etc.).Besides the national dress, domestically tailored suits  and neckties are often worn by men, and are customary in offices, schools, and social gatherings.

The fashion industry has flourished in the changing environment of the fashion world. Since Pakistan came into being, its fashion has evolved in different phases and developed a unique identity. Today, Pakistani fashion is a combination of traditional and modern dress and has become a mark of Pakistani culture. Despite modern trends, regional and traditional forms of dress have developed their own significance as a symbol of native tradition. This regional fashion continues to evolve into both more modern and purer forms. The Pakistan Fashion Design Council based in Lahore organizes PFDC Fashion Week and the Fashion Pakistan Council based in Karachi organizes Fashion Pakistan Week. Pakistan's first fashion week was held in November 2009.

Media and entertainment
Main articles: Cinema of Pakistan, Media of Pakistan, Music of Pakistan, History of Pakistani pop music, Theatre of Pakistan, and Pakistani dramas
The private print media, state-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) for radio  were the dominant media outlets until the beginning of the 21st century. Pakistan now has a large network of domestic, privately owned 24-hour news media and television channels.A 2016 report by the Reporters Without Borders ranked Pakistan 147th on the Press Freedom Index, while at the same time terming the Pakistani media "among the freest in Asia when it comes to covering the squabbling among politicians."BBC calls the Pakistani media "among the most outspoken in South Asia". Pakistani media has also played a vital role in exposing corruption.

The Lollywood, Kariwood, Punjabi, and Pashto  film industry is based in Karachi, Lahore, and Peshawar. While Bollywood films were banned from public cinemas from 1965 until 2008, they have remained an important part of popular culture.In contrast to the ailing Pakistani film industry, Urdu televised dramas and theatrical performances continue to be popular, as many entertainment media outlets air them regularly. Urdu dramas  dominate the television entertainment industry, which has launched critically acclaimed miniseries and featured popular actors and actresses since the 1990s. In the 1960s–1970s, pop musi

What is Colonial period ? Interesting fact about Colonial period in Pakistan

Colonial period
Main articles: Colonial India, Aligarh movement, and British Raj

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817–1898), whose vision  formed the basis of Pakistan

Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948) served as Pakistan's first Governor-General and the leader of the Pakistan Movement
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.A rebellion in 1857 called the Sepoy mutiny of Bengal was the region's major armed struggle against the British Empire and Queen Victoria.Divergence in the relationship between Hinduism and Islam created a major rift in British India that led to motivated religious violence in British India. The language controversy further escalated the tensions between Hindus and Muslims.The Hindu renaissance witnessed an awakening of intellectualism in traditional Hinduism and saw the emergence of more assertive influence in the social and political spheres in British India. An intellectual movement to counter the Hindu renaissance  was led by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, who helped found the All-India Muslim League in 1901 and envisioned, as well as advocated for, the two-nation theory.In contrast to the Indian National Congress's anti-British efforts, the Muslim League was a pro-British movement whose political program inherited the British values that would shape Pakistan's future civil society. In events during World War I, British Intelligence foiled an anti-English conspiracy involving the nexus of Congress and the German Empire.[citation needed] The largely non-violent independence struggle led by the Indian Congress engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s against the British Empire.


Over 10 million people were uprooted from their homeland and travelled on foot, bullock carts, and trains to their promised new home during the Partition of British India. During the partition, between 200,000 and 2,000,000 people were killed in the retributive genocide.
The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of British Muslims  in politics. In his presidential address of 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal called for "the amalgamation of North-West Muslim-majority Indian states" consisting of Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind, and Baluchistan.The perceived neglect of Muslim interests by Congress led British provincial governments during the period of 1937–39 convinced Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan to espouse the two-nation theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940 presented by Sher-e-Bangla A.K. Fazlul Haque, popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution.In World War II, Jinnah and British-educated founding fathers in the Muslim League supported the United Kingdom's war efforts, countering opposition against it whilst working towards Sir Syed's vision.

Top three intresting fact about of Pakistan

Early and medieval age
Main articles: Indus Valley Civilization, Vedic Period, Mauryan Empire, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, Sikh Empire, and Mughal Empire

Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan. The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab.The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarhand the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation(2,800–1,800 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.


Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st-2nd century AD.
The Vedic period (1500–500 BCE) was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture; during this period the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed, and this culture later became well established in the region.Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre.The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, which was founded around 1000 BCE.Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire (around 519 BCE), Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCEand the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE. The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria (180–165 BCE) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander (165–150 BCE), prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, which was established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis.The ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was also recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE.

At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty (489–632 CE) of Sindh ruled this region and the surrounding territories.The Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, which, under Dharmapala  and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan.

The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim  conquered Sindh in 711 CE. The Pakistan government's official chronology claims this as the time when the foundation of Pakistan was laid but the concept of Pakistan came in 19th century.The Early Medieval period (642–1219 CE) witnessed the spread of Islam in the region. During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.These developments set the stage for the rule of several successive Muslim empires in the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187 CE), the Ghorid Kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE). The Lodi dynasty, the last of the Delhi Sultanate, was replaced by the Mughal Empire (1526–1857 CE).


Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
The Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the region.From the region of modern-day Pakistan, key cities during the Mughal rule were Lahore and Thatta,both of which were chosen as the site of impressive Mughal buildings. In the early 16th century, the region remained under the Mughal Empire ruled by Muslim emperors. By the early 18th century, increasing European influence contributed to the slow disintegration of the Mughal Empire as the lines between commercial and political dominance b