Tuesday, July 31, 2018

What is the history of women? This is Interesting facts

A woman is an adult female human being. The term girl is the usual term for a female child or adolescent. The term woman, however, may also be used as the general term to identify a female human, regardless of age, as in phrases such as "women's rights". Women (in contrast with male humans, or men) typically have two X chromosomes, a uterus, a vagina, and mammary glands (as with all female mammals). Women with typical genetic development undergo regular menstruation when not pregnant and are usually capable of giving birth from puberty  until menopause.

In many prehistoric cultures, women assumed a particular cultural role. In hunter-gatherer  societies, women were generally the gatherers of plant foods, small animal foods and fish, while men hunted meat from large animals.[citation needed]

In more recent history, gender roles have changed greatly. Originally, starting at a young age, aspirations occupationally are typically veered towards specific directions according to gender.Traditionally, middle class  women were involved in domestic tasks emphasizing child care. For poorer women, especially working class women, although this often remained an ideal,[specify] economic necessity compelled them to seek employment outside the home. Many of the occupations that were available to them were lower in pay than those available to men.[citation needed]

As changes in the labor market for women came about, availability of employment changed from only "dirty", long hour factory jobs to "cleaner", more respectable office jobs where more education was demanded, women's participation in the U.S. labor force rose from 6% in 1900 to 23% in 1923. These shifts in the labor force led to changes in the attitudes of women at work, allowing for the revolution which resulted in women becoming career and education oriented.[citation needed]

During World War II, some women performed roles which would otherwise have been considered male jobs by the culture of the time
In the 1970s, many female academics, including scientists, avoided having children. However, throughout the 1980s, institutions tried to equalize conditions for men and women in the workplace. Even so, the inequalities at home stumped women's opportunities to succeed as far as men. Professional women are still generally considered responsible for domestic labor and child care. As people would say, they have a "double burden" which does not allow them the time and energy to succeed in their careers. Furthermore, though there has been an increase in the endorsement of egalitarian gender roles in the home by both women and men, a recent research study showed that women focused on issues of morality, fairness, and well-being, while men focused on social conventions. Until the early 20th century, U.S. women's colleges required their women faculty members to remain single, on the grounds that a woman could not carry on two full-time professions at once. According to Schiebinger, "Being a scientist and a wife and a mother is a burden in society that expects women more often than men to put family ahead of career."

Movements advocate equality of opportunity  for both sexes and equal rights irrespective of gender. Through a combination of economic  changes and the efforts of the feminist  movement,[specify] in recent decades women in many societies now have access to careers beyond the traditional homemaker.

Although a greater number of women are seeking higher education, their salaries are often less than those of men. CBS News claimed in 2005 that in the United States women who are ages 30 to 44 and hold a university degree make 62 percent of what similarly qualified men do, a lower rate than in all but three of the 19 countries for which numbers are available. Some Western nations with greater inequity in pay are Germany, New Zealand and Switzerland.

Do you know fact about Israel.

Modern Israel is roughly located on the site of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah. The area (also known as Land of Israel and as Palestine) is the birthplace of the Hebrew language, the place where the Hebrew Bible  was composed and the birthplace of Judaism  and Christianity. It contains sites sacred to Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Samaritanism, Druze and the Bahá'í Faith.

The Land of Israel has come under the sway of various empires and has been home to a variety of ethnicities, but was predominantly Jewish from roughly 1,000 years before the Common Era (BCE) until the 3rd century of the Common Era (CE).
The adoption of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century led to a Greco-Roman Christian majority which lasted until the 7th century when the area was conquered by the Arab Muslim Empires. It gradually became predominantly Moslem until the Crusades  between 1096 and 1291, when it was the focal point of conflict between Christianity and Islam. From the 13th century it was mainly Moslem with Arabic as the dominant language and was first part of the Syrian province of the Mamluk Sultanate and then part of the Ottoman Empire until the British conquest in 1917.

A Jewish national movement, Zionism, emerged in the late-19th century (partially in response to growing anti-Semitism), as part of which Aliyah (Jewish immigration) increased. After World War I many Ottoman territories were after years of periodic unrest torn apart in the Levant, coming under British and French control and the League of Nations  granted the British a Mandate to rule Palestine which was to be turned into a Jewish National Home. A rival Arab nationalism also claimed rights over the former Ottoman territories and sought to prevent Jewish migration into Palestine, leading to growing Arab–Jewish tensions. Israeli independence in 1948 was marked by massive migration of Jews from Europe, a Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries to Israel, and of Arabs from Israel, followed by the Arab–Israeli conflict. About 43% of the world's Jews live in Israel today, the largest Jewish community in the world.

Since about 1970, the United States has become the principal ally of Israel. In 1979, an uneasy Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty was signed, based on the Camp David Accords. In 1993, Israel signed Oslo I Accord with the Palestine Liberation Organization, followed by establishment of the Palestinian National Authority and in 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty was signed. Despite efforts to finalize the peace agreement, the conflict continues to play a major role in Israeli and international political, social and economic life.

The economy of Israel was initially primarily socialist and the country dominated by social democratic parties until the 1970s. Since then the Israeli economy has gradually moved to capitalism and a free market economy, partially retaining the social welfare system

Do you know this is most important part of Haman body

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system. The brain consists of the cerebrum, the brainstem and the cerebellum. It controls most of the activities of the body, processing, integrating, and coordinating the information it receives from the sense organs, and making decisions as to the instructions sent to the rest of the body. The brain is contained in, and protected by, the skull bones of the head. The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain. It is divided into two cerebral hemispheres. The cerebral cortex is an outer layer of grey matter, covering the core of white matter. The cortex is split into the neocortex and the much smaller allocortex. The neocortex is made up of six neuronal layers, while the allocortex has three or four. Each hemisphere is conventionally divided into four lobes – the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. The frontal lobe is associated with executive functions  including self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought, while the occipital lobe is dedicated to vision. Within each lobe, cortical areas are associated with specific functions, such as the sensory, motor and association regions. Although the left and right hemispheres are broadly similar in shape and function, some functions are associated with one side, such as language in the left and visual-spatial ability in the right. The hemispheres are connected by commissural nerve tracts, the largest being the corpus callosum.

The cerebrum is connected by the brainstem to the spinal cord. The brainstem consists of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. The cerebellum is connected to the brainstem by pairs of tracts. Within the cerebrum is the ventricular system, consisting of four interconnected ventricles in which cerebrospinal fluid is produced and circulated. Underneath the cerebral cortex are several important structures, including the thalamus, the epithalamus, the pineal gland, the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the subthalamus; the limbic structures, including the amygdala and the hippocampus; the claustrum, the various nuclei of the basal ganglia; the basal forebrain structures, and the three circumventricular organs. The cells  of the brain include neurons and supportive glial cells. There are more than 86 billion neurons in the brain, and a more or less equal number of other cells. Brain activity is made possible by the interconnections of neurons and their release of neurotransmitters in response to nerve impulses. Neurons connect to form neural pathways, neural circuits, and elaborate network systems. The whole circuitry is driven by the process of neurotransmission.

The brain is protected by the skull, suspended in cerebrospinal fluid, and isolated from the bloodstream by the blood–brain barrier. However, the brain is still susceptible to damage, disease, and infection. Damage can be caused by trauma, or a loss of blood supply known as a stroke. The brain is susceptible to degenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dementias including Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia and clinical depression, are thought to be associated with brain dysfunctions. The brain can also be the site of tumours, both benign and malignant; these mostly originate from other sites in the body. The study of the anatomy of the brain is neuroanatomy, while the study of its function is neuroscience. A number of techniques are used to study the brain. Specimens from other animals, which may be examined microscopically, have traditionally provided much information. Medical imaging  technologies such as functional neuroimaging, and electroencephalography  (EEG) recordings are important in studying the brain. The medical history of people with brain injury has provided insight into the function of each part of the brain.

In culture, the philosophy of mind has for centu

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Water on the moon was discovered by India

On November 14, 2008, the Indian  spacecraft Chandrayaan-1 released the Moon Impact Probe (MIP) that impacted Shackleton Crater, of the lunar south pole, at 20:31 on 14 November 2008 releasing subsurface debris that was analyzed for presence of water ice.

On September 27, 2012, NASA scientists announced that the Curiosity rover found direct evidence for an ancient streambed in Gale Crater, suggesting an ancient "vigorous flow" of water on Mars. In particular, analysis of the now dry streambed indicated that the water ran at 3.3 km/h (0.92 m/s), possibly at hip-depth.

Moon trees are trees grown from 500 seeds taken into orbit around the Moon by Stuart Roosa during the Apollo 14 mission in 1971.

What little atmosphere the Moon  has consists of some unusual gases, including sodium and potassium, which are not found in the atmospheres of Earth, Mars, or Venus.

Lunar water is water that is present on the Moon. Liquid water cannot persist at the Moon's surface, and water vapor is decomposed by sunlight, with hydrogen  quickly lost to outer space. However, scientists have conjectured since the 1960s that water ice could survive in cold, permanently shadowed craters at the Moon's poles. Water molecules are also detected in the thin layer of gases above the lunar surface.

Water (H2O), and the chemically related hydroxyl group (-OH), can also exist in forms chemically bound as hydrates and hydroxides  to lunar minerals (rather than free water), and evidence strongly suggests that this is indeed the case in low concentrations over much of the Moon's surface. In fact, adsorbed water is calculated to exist at trace concentrations of 10 to 1000 parts per million. In 1978 it was reported that samples returned by the Soviet Luna 24 probe contained 0.1% water by mass sample. Inconclusive evidence of free water ice at the lunar poles was accumulated from a variety of observations suggesting the presence of bound hydrogen.

On 18 November 2008, the Moon Impact probe was released from India's Chandrayaan-1 at a height of 100 kilometres (62 mi). During its 25-minute descent, the impact probe's Chandra's Altitudinal Composition (CHACE) recorded evidence of water in 650 mass spectra gathered in the thin atmosphere above the Moon's surface. In September 2009, NASA payload Moon Mineralogy Mapper onboard Chandrayaan-1 detected water on the Moon surface  and hydroxyl absorption lines in reflected sunlight.
In November 2009, NASA re-confirmed water on moon with its LCROSS space probe which detected a significant amount of hydroxyl group in the material thrown up from a south polar crater by an impactor this may be attributed to water-bearing materials – what appears to be "near pure crystalline  water-ice".In March 2010, it was reported that the Mini-SAR on board Chandrayaan-1 had discovered more than 40 permanently darkened craters near the Moon's north pole that are hypothesized to contain an estimated 600 million metric tonnes (1.3 trillion pounds) of water-ice.

Water may have been delivered to the Moon over geological timescales by the regular bombardment of water-bearing comets, asteroids and meteoroids  or continuously produced in situ by the hydrogen ions (protons) of the solar wind impacting oxygen-bearing minerals.

The search for the presence of lunar water has attracted considerable attention and motivated several recent lunar missions, largely because of water's usefulness in rendering long-term lunar habitation feasible.

The highest cricket ground in the world

Cricket Ground- Surrounded by thick forests of deodar, a well maintained Chail Cricket ground is the highest cricket ground in the world. It was built in 1893. The ground is located at an altitude of 2,444 metres (8,018 ft). Chail served as the summer capital of Maharaja Bhupinder Singh (who was an avid cricket lover).

Chail is a hill station in Himachal Pradesh, India. It is 44 kilometres (27 mi) from Shimla  and 45 kilometres (28 mi) from Solan. The Chail Palace is well known for its architecture: the palace was built as summer retreat by the Maharaja of Patiala during the British Raj, on the land allotted to him by the British for former's assistance in the Anglo-Nepalese War. The cricket ground and a polo ground which is there at an altitude of 2,250 m was owned by erstwhile royal family of Patiala. It is the world's highest cricket ground

In 1891, Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala  incurred the rage of Lord Kitchener. It led to the restriction of his entry in the Indian summer capital, Shimla. This incensed the Maharaja and he vowed to build a new summer retreat for himself. So he rebuilt the place (Chail) as per his requirements.

After accession to the Indian Union, Maharaja of Patiala donated most of his buildings to Chail Military School and Government of India.

Chail is situated at an altitude of 2,250 m. The place is surrounded by the forests of chir pine  and gigantic deodars. Shimla, Solan and Kasauli can also be viewed at night from here. Chail is pleasant in summers and cold in winter. Average annual rainfall is about 150 mm.

Monday, July 30, 2018

The wettest inhabited place in the world

Mawsynram, India. Mawsynram, located in the Meghalaya State in India, is the wettest place in the world, with an annual rainfall of 11,871 millimeters. ...
Cherrapunji, India. 15 kilometers from Mawsynram is the second wettest place in the world. ...
Tutendo, Colombia. ...
Cropp River, New Zealand.

The wettest places on Earth, Mawsynram and nearby Cherrapunji in India, are known for their lush greenery and visited by tourists from around the world.

Precipitation can be defined as various forms of water (solid or liquid) that form in the atmosphere and fall upon an area’s surface. Precipitation is influenced by a number of factors including the presence of landforms, proximity to water bodies, elevation, latitude, and water currents. Landforms such as mountains prevent heavy rain clouds from traveling out of a region thus causing rainfall concentration on that particular area. Wind currents from water-bodies and high elevations from sea level also influence precipitation patterns.

Mawsynram, India

Mawsynram, located in the Meghalaya State in India, is the wettest place in the world, with an annual rainfall of 11,871 millimeters. The large volume of rain is caused by the Himalayas Ranges blocking heavy clouds’ escape to the North. The region’s rainfall rises to 12 meters, making the area home to rivers and waterfalls. The dwellers of Mawsynram have adapted to the wet conditions and never leave the house without an umbrella. The residents make basket-like covers with reeds, to block out the rain as they work in the fields. The villagers make use of grass as soundproof for their huts. The drier periods in the region are considered to be between December and January when the rainfall can amount to a mere 60 millimeters.
Cherrapunji, India

15 kilometers from Mawsynram is the second wettest place in the world. Cherrapunji receives an annual rainfall of 11,777 millimeters and is also located in India's Meghalaya State. The region stands at 4500 feet above sea level on the Khasi Hills, and receives its rainfall from the Monsoon winds traveling from the Bay of Bengal. The region is characterized by the monsoon season with varying amounts of rainfall per month. During the summer season, temperatures get as high as 23 Degrees Celsius and as low as seven degrees Celsius in the winter months. Perhaps Cherrapunji is mostly famed for its live Root Bridges, strong enough to hold about 50 people at once and the products of villager’s bioengineering efforts.
Tutendo, Colombia

Tutendo is found in the nation of Colombia  in South America, and receives an annual rainfall of 11,770 millimeters. Tutendo has two rainy seasons and has a small population, less than 1,000 people. The small number of inhabitants in the region erect houses roofed with water-proof sheets to prevent leakages. The city of Quibdo lies nearby and is one of the wettest cities in the world.
Cropp River, New Zealand

Cropp River is found in New Zealand and receives an annual rainfall of 11,516 millimeters. The Cropp River is 9 kilometers in length. Its climate is a stark contrast to the mostly arid climate, which characterizes the rest of New Zealand. Cropp River recorded 1,049 millimeters of rainfall on December 12th-13th, 1995, the highest ever registered in New Zealand in a 48-hour period.

Elephants are the only animals that can't jump.

Elephants can't jump—and here's why. Despite what you may have seen in your Saturday morning cartoons, elephants can't jump, according to a video by Smithsonian. And there's one simple reason: They don't have to. Most jumpy animals—your kangaroos, monkeys, and frogs—do it primarily to get away from predators.

Despite what you may have seen in your Saturday morning cartoons, elephants can’t jump, according to a video by Smithsonian. And there’s one simple reason: They don’t have to. Most jumpy animals—your kangaroos, monkeys, and frogs—do it primarily to get away from predators. Elephants keep themselves safe in other ways, relying on their huge size and protective social groups. And, as it turns out, it’s hard to get 4 tons of mammal off the ground all at once. In the case of the elephant, in fact, it’s impossible. Unlike most mammals, the bones in elephant legs are all pointed downwards, which means they don’t have  the “spring” required to push off the ground.

How its possible 111,111,111 x 111,111,111 = 12,345,678,987,654,321

I'm not sure how you knew to ask me this question, but since you did I will provide a little feedback. Ironically, I was recently working on these very same configurations of the intrinsic set of palindromic sequences in an attempt to develop potential bedrock deep learning methodologies.

The sequences using 1’s are extremely important. However, to get a clearer comprehension, we might want to look at this from a big picture standpoint. By looking at the transitional dynamics. Below is a formula representation of the internal count of ones versus zeroes that can be seen if we did the multiplication by hand.


It may seem trivial to analyze these usually hidden variables, however sometimes guiding patterns can be found in even the most unusual and unexpected places. If I find any kind of symmetry, I go into bloodhound mode, and in that state, no pattern is safe…

Looking at the set of palindromic numbers generated by the increasing multiplication using only ones, we find something very interesting indeed.

Note that the symmetry holds for the first 20. After that, we must adjust the logic if we want to keep the symmetry. First, notice that if we take the palindromic numbers as rows and sum those rows; the result is equal to an n2→n(n+1)n2→n(n+1) situation where;

the natural numbers of n equate to an exact representation of the increasing ones that were multiplied to generate the palindromic sequences we're now summing…


[11×11=121][11×11=121] while the sum of

[1+2+1=4][1+2+1=4] where

[4≡2×2][4≡2×2] and


Think about that for a second…

Realize that this remains true for twenty terms. The only reason the logic falters after that is because after the twentieth term, the palindromic numbers begin to generate double digit numbers which breaks the symmetry…

In order to keep the symmetry going, we simply have to stop using the ones and continue on using the equivalent n representations. That and we must from that point on consider the palindromic numbers as having separate elements while introducing each new term as a distinct value. I know that process seems weird but what I haven't yet mentioned is the special use of such a (now infinite) set of rows.

Actually, its better I stop here for now because the steps that follow are related to a different process pertaining to prime numbers.

Anyway, hopefully a bit more light now shines on some of the palindromic numbers and the logic that those numbers subscribe too…

There is always something interesting indeed when analyzing the logic surrounding symmetries…


I want to express gratitude for the upvotes and support. I noticed that many young minds have read this writing, which is great. Although, I now feel responsible to clarify a few things. First, the mathematics used here, although correct in process, are incorrect in terms of the conventions used to express notations, especially regarding the way I chose to express the summations. I am not aware of any convention that expresses the addition version of the factorial methods that are expressed with multiplication via the ! Symbol.

I therefore created a makeshift notation using ∑1→n∑1→n in an attempt to achieve said expressions. The Sum to n method is expressing an intention to add 1+2+3+…n≡∑1→n1+2+3+…n≡∑1→n.

In other words, I modified the notation method to express my purposes. However, that's not the right way to learn these things. We cannot just invent things and expect others to understand our meaning. So please do not follow or let these examples influence you to learn the language of mathematics without respect for existing notations. The point of mathematical notation is to communicate on agreed terms. That being said, I'm adding a few more formulas related to the observations above.