Friday, August 10, 2018

Biggest Holes Ever Made By Humans!

From gigantic diamond mines you can see from Space, drilling to the center of the Earth, Here are 7 Biggest holes ever make by Humans!

7. Diavik Diamond Mine

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This Diamond mine, located in Canada`s remote Northwest Territories is actually a pretty recent hole!

Work only began on this thing in 2003, and it is one of the world`s pre-eminent sources of gem diamonds. Science mining operation began, it has produced over 100 million carats of diamonds!!

Here`s the catch though, you can`t drive there, or take a train or board. You have to fly into the mine to get there. And once you are there, your way of getting around is pretty restricted. There`s a road in the area that connects the mine to a building, and it`s wide enough for a truck. And even then, if the weather gets bad, the road is toast. The only solutions are ice roads for about 2 months a year that lead from the massive hole to the Diavik Airport, and just the slightest change in weather can leave that miner stranded. In the summer the mine is on an island in a lake, but then later the mine surrounded by endless white desert.

All mining takes place underground and it gets over 3,000 pounds of diamonds out of the earth every year. It is expected to close in 2024.

 6. The Berkeley Pit

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It is located in Butte, Montana this copper mine is now filled with heavily acidic water. Opened in 1955 this mine was used to get copper out of the earth. Ironically it closed on Earth Day in 1982. In the 80s the Berkeley pit was 1,700 feet deep and 900 feet wid. Approximately 320 million tons of ore and over 700 million tons of waste rock were mined from the pit.

The pit had a good turnout before being shut down. After that, things took a turn for the worst. With nothing stopping the water from getting into the pit, the hole is now a huge lake. Well that's not bad per se when you mix water with man-made chemicals and toxic waste from the former mine you get water that's highly acidic, which is pretty terrible for the environment very bad. In fact in the 90s a flock of snow geese decided to go into the pit to cool down. All 342 of them were killed by the water now you can go to pay to seek toxic water for $2. The pit is now half a mile wide and one 1780 feet deep. If you were to drink from the water, you would be swallowing copper, iron, arsenic cadmium, zinc and sulfuric acid. And you would probably die. The pit is actually rising and could contaminate the water for more than 30,000 people

5. The Mir Mine

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This is a diamond mine and one of the largest excavations in history. This mine in Russia is the second largest man-made hole in the world located outside of Mirny. a small town in eastern Siberia this place is 1722 feet(525 meters) deep and 3,900 feet(1.25 Kilometers) across. The mine itself was built by the leader of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin in 1955. Explosives were used to get through the permafrost and during its peak years of operation, the mine produced over 10 million carats of diamonds annually.

4. The Ice Cube Neutrino observatory.

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There are many different ways to make holes in the earth as you know or will soon learn. But for the University of Wisconsin, they wanted to do a study of the earth from a different perspective. They decided to go to Antarctica and drill a massive hole into the very ice caps of the earth to see what's down there.

Thus the Ice Cube neutrino Observatory was made that might sound weird but it's actually a viable practice. After all, the ice of the world's polar caps hides secrets and mysteries of the world that we can barely found them. From remains of ancient creatures, to act viruses and diseases that were frozen in time, there's a lot to discover. The IceCube neutrino Observatory is the first detector of its kind and it covers a cubic kilometer of ice. The Ice Cube searches for mass less subatomic particles called neutrinos. There are about 300 physicists from 12 different countries working on the program. Now, as for how they made this hole in the Antarctic, they went there during the summer season of course and use a hot water hose to melt the ice itself and dig its way down. It's not the easiest way to make a hole, but given their location, it might be the most clever. It took them seven years but now the hole is about 8000 feet deep (Thats 1.5 Miles give or take).

Oh, and did I mention that they did this multiple times?

They now have several holes in the Antarctic. And as for what they do now that they have them, they've put optic cables in them so that they can see and give information to the people at the Amundsen-scott South Pole Station. There are actually 86 separate optic cables that give all kinds of information.

3. Kimberly diamond mine

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Also known as the big hole, the Kimberly diamond mine in South Africa, is home to the world's largest diamond mine!

It's so large it is visible from space and has produced some of the world's largest diamonds. This mine actually used to be a hill. And then 50,000 workers came in with their pickaxe and started to dig, and they went deeper and deeper and now. The mine looks as you see it now this mine started in 1866 but excavation stopped in 1914. All a manpower. And by the time it was done the mine was 705 feet deep, and over 1500 feet wide. Hence the name "big hole", and it's not hard to see why. Estimates say that over 6,000 pounds of diamonds were excavated from the mine. The mine is a popular tourist destination and you can now visit the town and see how the poor workers and the DeBeers family lived, as well as see the machinery and hollowed out Bibles miners used to use to smuggle out diamonds.

2. The Bingham County mine

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Also known as the Kennecott Copper Mine in Utah, this mine definitely takes the cake. This copper mine has been in use for over a century, and it's still open to this day. It's the biggest copper mine in the world and provides about 25% of the country's copper needs for those of you who guessed this mine is about two and a half miles wide and about three quarters of a mile deep at last count, and it's likely much bigger than that. That's why some people consider it the largest excavation in the world.

And again, it's over 100 years old. Mining began there in 1906, and you can bet that no one digging there at the time thought that this would become what it is today. On a visual note it's just stunning you can see the "steps" in the earth as the miner is dug deeper and deeper. Although part of it was destroyed by a landslide, it is still being mined. The mine is a popular tourist destination although currently the visitor center is closed. So be sure to check before you take the trip out there!

There was some movement in the earth, so they need to relocate it and they are working on a way to create an interactive experience for new visitors.

1. The Kola SuperDeep Borehole

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Have you ever wondered what's at the center of the earth?

Fact is, no one really knows which is why the Kola SuperDeep borehole is so important. While the Bingham County mine may be the largest manmade hole in the world, the Kola SuperDeep borehole is the deepest hole in the world!

When you look at the entrance to the Kola SuperDeep borehole, you might not be that impressed. After all, it's only 9 inches wid. But like the saying goes, you can't judge a book by its cover. And in this case the "cover" of this borehole hides a 7.5 mile hole that was dug in the 1970s.

So why was this hole even made?

Well ,it was a time of political turmoil, and while this "Space Race" was capturing the eyes of the world as we tried to set foot on the moon, another race was going on between the United States and the Soviet Union. Mainly, they wanted to see who could drill the deepest into the earth. It may have started out petty, but it became a race that would help us understand more of what's inside of our planet. The US did their drilling off the coast of Mexico in the Pacific Ocean, whereas the Soviet Union decided to dig in the Kola Peninsula. Ironically the US side of the race had to stop in 1966. The reason ? Lack of funding the Soviets kept going though, going and going until they reached 7.5 miles beneath the Earth's crust. That's 40.230 feet (12,262 meter). For the record, that's deeper than the deepest ocean on the planet. To be fair this took a long time. The Soviet drilling started in 1970, and only stopped 24 years later in 1994. Why because the extreme heat kept destroying the equipment. Drillers reached 356 degrees Fahrenheit while they had estimated it would be 212 degrees. At that heat the environment is practically liquid and they couldn't maintain the hole. All the drill bits melted and the rock layer didn't act as scientists had expected. That being said the samples that were found because of the drilling are invaluable and have not only changed what scientists know about the Earth's core, but also seismic activity and mapping. You can still see the borehole if you go to Russia, however, since 2008 it's been sealed shut, so you won't get to peek at the inside.

Now many international teams and oil and gas companies are also drilling deep. The Chikyu a Japanese drill ship, claims the record for the deepest offshore hole drilled for scientific purposes. They are now at about 10,000 feet (2 miles below the seafloor). Now known as the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program they are hoping to break all previous records and are expecting to spend around $1 billion dollars!!

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