Thursday, September 27, 2018

World Tourism Day is First Celebration



Since 1980, the United Nations World Tourism Organization has celebrated World Tourism Day as international observances on September 27. This date was chosen as on that day in 1970, the Statutes of the UNWTO were adopted. The adoption of these Statutes is considered a milestone in global tourism. The purpose of this day is to raise awareness  on the role of tourism within the international community and to demonstrate how it affects social, cultural, political and economic values worldwide. The theme of the day was "sustainable tourism", in 2017. In 2018 the theme is "Tourism and the Digital Transformation".

At its Twelfth Session in Istanbul, Turkey, in October 1997, the UNWTO General Assembly decided to designate a host country each year to act as the Organization's partner in the celebration of World Tourism Day. At its Fifteenth Session in Beijing, China, in October 2003, the Assembly decided the following geographic order to be followed for World Tourism Day celebrations: 2006 in Europe; 2007 in South Asia; 2008 in the Americas; 2009 in Africa and 2011 in the Middle East.

The late Ignatius Amaduwa Atigbi, a Nigerian national, was the one who proposed the idea of marking September 27 of every year as World Tourism Day. He was finally recognized for his contribution in 2009. The colour of World Tourism Day is Blue.


Monday, September 24, 2018

Fact about MOM




Artist's rendering of the Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft, with Mars in the background.
The primary objective of the mission is to develop the technologies required for designing, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission. The secondary objective is to explore Mars' surface features, morphology, mineralogy and Martian atmosphere using indigenous scientific instruments.


The main objectives are to develop the technologies required for designing, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission comprising the following major tasks:42

Orbit manoeuvres to transfer the spacecraft from Earth-centred orbit to heliocentric trajectory and finally, capture into Martian orbit
Development of force models and algorithms for orbit and attitude computations and analysis
Navigation in all phases
Maintain the spacecraft in all phases of the mission
Meeting power, communications, thermal and payload operation requirements
Incorporate autonomous features to handle contingency situations
Scientific objectives
The scientific objectives deal with the following major aspects::43

Exploration of Mars surface features by studying the morphology, topography and mineralogy
Study the constituents of Martian atmosphere including methane and CO2 using remote sensing techniques
Study the dynamics of the upper atmosphere of Mars, effects of solar wind  and radiation and the escape of volatiles to outer space
The mission would also provide multiple opportunities to observe the Martian moon Phobos and also offer an opportunity to identify and re-estimate the orbits of asteroids seen during the Martian Transfer Trajectory.

Fact about mars orbiter mission (MOM)





The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan ("Mars-craft", from Sanskrit: मंगल mangala, "Mars" and यान yāna, "craft, vehicle"), is a space probe orbiting Mars  since 24 September 2014. It was launched on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is India's first interplanetary mission and ISRO has also become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and the European Space Agency.It is the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the first nation in the world to do so in its first attempt.
The Mars Orbiter Mission probe lifted-off from the First Launch Pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre (Sriharikota Range SHAR), Andhra Pradesh, using a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) rocket C25 at 09:08 UTC on 5 November 2013 The launch window was approximately 20 days long and started on 28 October 2013.The MOM probe spent about a month in Earth orbit, where it made a series of seven apogee-raising orbital manoeuvres  before trans-Mars injection on 30 November 2013 (UTC). After a 298-day transit to Mars, it was successfully inserted into Mars orbit on 24 September 2014.

The mission is a "technology demonstrator" project to develop the technologies for designing, planning, management, and operations of an interplanetary mission.It carries five instruments that will help advance knowledge about Mars to achieve its secondary, scientific objective. The spacecraft is currently being monitored from the Spacecraft Control Centre at ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network  (ISTRAC) in Bangalore with support from Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) antennae at Byalalu, Karnataka.




Mythological anecdotes of Ganesha and Consorts of Ganesha



Shiva and Parvati giving a bath to Ganesha. Kangra miniature, 18th century. Allahabad Museum, New Delhi.
Though Ganesha is popularly held to be the son of Shiva and Parvati, the Puranic myths give different versions about his birth.In some he was created by Parvati, in another he was created by Shiva and  Parvati, in another he appeared mysteriously and was discovered by Shiva and Parvati or he was born from the elephant headed goddess Malini after she drank Parvati's bath water that had been thrown in the river.

The family includes his brother, the god of war, Kartikeya, who is also called Skanda and Murugan.lMurugan. differences dictate the order of their births. In northern India, Skanda is generally said to be the elder, while in the south, Ganesha is considered the firstborn. In northern India, Skanda was an important martial deity from about 500 BCE to about 600 CE, after which worship of him declined significantly. As Skanda fell, Ganesha rose. Several stories tell of sibling rivalry between the brothers and may reflect sectarian tensions.

Ganesha's marital status, the subject of considerable scholarly review, varies widely in mythological stories.One pattern of myths identifies Ganesha as an unmarried brahmachari.This view is common in southern India and parts of northern India. Another pattern associates him with the concepts of Buddhi (intellect), Siddhi (spiritual power), and Riddhi (prosperity); these qualities are sometimes personified as goddesses, said to be Ganesha's wives.He also may be shown with a single consort or a nameless servant (Sanskrit: daşi). Another pattern connects Ganesha with the goddess of culture and the arts, Sarasvati or Śarda  (particularly in Maharashtra).He is also associated with the goddess of luck and prosperity, Lakshmi. Another pattern, mainly prevalent in the Bengal region, links Ganesha with the banana tree, Kala Bo.

The Shiva Purana says that Ganesha had begotten two sons: Kşema (prosperity) and Lābha (profit). In northern Indian variants of this story, the sons are often said to be Śubha  (auspiciouness) and Lābha.The 1975 Hindi film Jai Santoshi Maa shows Ganesha married to Riddhi and Siddhi and having a daughter named Santoshi Ma, the goddess of satisfaction. This story has no Puranic basis, but Anita Raina Thapan and Lawrence Cohen cite Santoshi Ma's cult as evidence of Ganesha's continuing evolution as a popular deity.

Ganpati Bappa Moriya



Ganesha has been ascribed many other titles and epithets, including Ganapati (Ganpati) and Vighneshvara. The Hindu title of respect Shri  (Sanskrit: श्री; IAST: śrī; also spelled Sri or Shree) is often added before his name.

The name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana (gaṇa), meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha (īśa), meaning lord or master.The word gaṇa when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the gaṇas, a troop of semi-divine beings that form part of the retinue of Shiva, Ganesha's father.The term more generally means a category, class, community, association, or corporation.Some commentators interpret the name "Lord of the Gaṇas" to mean "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord of created categories", such as the elements.Ganapati (गणपति; gaṇapati), a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of gaṇa, meaning "group", and pati, meaning "ruler" or "lord". Though the earliest mention of the word Ganapati is found in hymn 2.23.1 of the 2nd-millennium BCE Rigveda, it is however uncertain that the Vedic term referred specifically to Ganesha.The Amarakosha, an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha: Vinayaka, Vighnarāja (equivalent to Vighnesha), Dvaimātura (one who has two mothers), Gaṇādhipa (equivalent to Ganapati and Ganesha), Ekadanta (one who has one tusk), Heramba, Lambodara (one who has a pot belly, or, literally, one who has a hanging belly), and Gajanana (gajānana); having the face of an elephant.

Vinayaka (विनायक; vināyaka) is a common name for Ganesha that appears in the Purāṇas and in Buddhist Tantras. This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak (Marathi: अष्टविनायक, aṣṭavināyaka).The names Vighnesha (विघ्नेश; vighneśa) and Vighneshvara  (विघ्नेश्वर; vighneśvara) (Lord of Obstacles) refers to his primary function in Hinduism as the master and remover of obstacles (vighna).

Fact about Ganpati Bappa

Ganesha (Sanskrit: गणेश, Gaṇeśa;  listen (help·info)), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon. His image is found throughout India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bali (Indonesia), Bangladesh and Nepal.Hindu denominations worship him regardless of affiliations.Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains and Buddhists.





Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha's elephant head makes him easy to identify.Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences and the deva of intellect and wisdom. As the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rites and ceremonies. Ganesha is also invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions.Several texts relate mythological anecdotes  associated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography.

Ganesha likely emerged as a deity as early as the 2nd century AD, but most certainly by the 4th and 5th centuries AD, during the Gupta period, although he inherited traits from Vedic  and pre-Vedic precursors. Hindu mythology identifies him as the restored son of Parvati  and Shiva of the Shaivism tradition, but he is a pan-Hindu god found in its various traditions.In the Ganapatya tradition of Hinduism, Ganesha is the supreme deity. The principal texts on Ganesha include the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa. Brahma Purana and Brahmanda Purana are other two Puranic genre encyclopedic texts that deal with Ganesha.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Do you know this "Bachpan Bachao Andolan"



Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA; Save Childhood Movement) is an India-based movement campaigning for the rights of children. It was started in 1980 by Nobel Laureate Mr. Kailash Satyarthi. Its focus has centred on ending bonded labour, child labour  and human trafficking, as well as demanding the right to education for all children. It has so far freed more than 83,000 children from servitude, including bonded labourers, and helped in their successful re-integration, rehabilitation and education.

The stated vision of Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA) is "to create a child friendly society where all children are free from exploitation and receive free and quality education. It aims to identify, liberate, rehabilitate and educate children in servitude through direct intervention, child and community participation, coalition building, consumer action, promoting ethical trade practices and mass mobilisation."

BBA was formed in 1980 by Mr. Kailash Satyarthi, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate for 2014, who was appalled by the plight of child slavery across South Asia. Child labour has been socially accepted and widely practised in the region for generations, being seen as a necessary outcome of poverty. BBA became the first organization in India to highlight the issue and spawned the wider South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude (SACCS).

Tuesday, September 4, 2018

Tourism of bihar

The Mahabodhi Temple, among the four holy sites related to the life of the Lord Buddha and UNESCO World Heritage Site
The culture and heritage of Bihar can be observed from the large number of ancient monuments spread throughout the state. Bihar is visited by many tourists from around the world, with about 24,000,000 (24 million) tourists visiting the state each year.

In earlier days, tourism in the region was purely based on educational tourism, as Bihar was home of some prominent ancient universities like Nalanda & Vikramashila.



Monuments of Darbhanga


   Remains of the ancient city of Vaishali


                   Trolley ride in Rajgir


 The tomb of Sher Shah Suri is in the       Sasaram town of Bihar


     Barabar Caves – Asokan Inscription


                 Vikramshila Monastery


                    Buddha Smriti Park

Interesting facts about History of bihar


Copy of the seal excavated from Kundpur, Vaishali. The Brahmi letters on the seal means: Kundpur was in Vaishali. Prince Vardhaman (Mahavira) used this seal after the Judgement

Magadha, Anga and Vrijji (or Vajji) Confederacy of Mithila in circa  600 BCE
Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345 BC).Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha, Mithila and Anga—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.

Mithila first gained prominence after being settled by Indo-Aryan peoples who established the Videha Kingdom.mmDuring the late Vedic period (c. 1100-500 BCE), Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla. The kings of the Videha Kingdom were called Janakas.Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic, Ramayana, written by Valmiki. The Videha Kingdom later became incorporated into the Vajji  confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, which is also in Mithila.Vajji had a republican form of government where the king was elected from the number of rajas. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the world's first republic.

The region of modern-day southwestern Bihar called Magadha remained the centre of power, learning, and culture in India for 1000 years. The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha  (modern Rajgir). The two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered the Vajji. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty. Later the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab.

The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire, India's first empire. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism  arose in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who was born in Magadha. It had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Mauryan  emperor, Ashoka, who was born in Pataliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world.

The Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy.Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.


Medieval

Kalidasa's Sanskrit play Abhijñānaśākuntalam
Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed. It was claimed that thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred during the 12th century.D. N. Jha suggests, instead, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy.In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital.

From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties. The first of these where the Karnatas, followed by the Oinwar dynasty, Raghuvanshi and finally Raj Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shifted to Darbhanga.

The tenth and the last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna.

Interesting facts about bihar



Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the Freight equalisation policy, its apathy towards Bihar,lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, and the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company. The state government has, however, made significant strides in developing the state.Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure,better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and a reduction in crime and corruption.

The name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit  and Pali word, Vihāra (Devanagari: विहार), meaning "abode". The region roughly encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabakat-i-Nasiri that in 1198, Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town now known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya.

Interesting facts about bihar

Bihar (/bɪˈhɑːr/; Hindustani pronunciation: [bɪˈɦaːr]) is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India. It is the 13th-largest state of India, with an area of 94,163 km2 (36,357 sq mi). The third-largest state of India by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges which flows from west to east. Bihar is an amalgamation of three distinct regions: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.





Clockwise from top: Great Buddha Statue at Bodh Gaya, Ruins of ancient Nalanda University, Madhubani painting  from Mithila region, Brahma Kund hot springs in Rajgir
On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand.Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh.Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state.

In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture. AwFrom Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta  dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule.Another region of Bihar is Mithila which was an early centre of Brahmanical learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom.There is an ongoing movement in the Maithili speaking region of Bihar for a separate Indian state of Mithila. What would be the capital of the state has yet to be decided, but Darbhanga is the most likely candidate. Other potential capitals include Muzaffarpur, Purnia, Madhubani and Begusarai.